Shopping for the masses—the haves and have-nots.

It seems like I can hardly go more than two months without drumming up a blog article coming from a mall.  Even as enclosed malls have plunged from the popularity peak in the 1970s and early 1980s (a point in time when American downtowns were lifeless almost across the map), they still remain a formidable retail presence across most metropolitan areas.  Malls continue to offer a consolidated laboratory for observing consumers’ idiosyncrasies.  But they are in serious trouble.  Hardly a week goes by when a mall somewhere isn’t losing a key anchor tenant.   And, at the height of the Great Recession, an average of four malls closed every week.  Nonetheless, plenty others remain that don’t show even a hint of fading.  The Greenwood Park Mall outside Indianapolis, the one closest to where I grew up, is probably stronger than ever, with more upper-middle retailers than it had in the 1990s.  I even blogged about it a while ago.  Conversely, two other malls on Indianapolis’ east and west sides of town remain on life support.

Then there are the dozens of malls that fall somewhere between these two extremes: not really likely to collapse any time soon, but certainly not flourishing. These malls have ostensibly lost their market share to other retail typologies: big boxes, lifestyle centers, power-strip clusters (not really sure what else to call them), and even sometimes to traditional town centers lucrative enough to attract major national brands.  Such malls might still expire, however, and the biggest threat is the terminally sleeping giant of online retail.  Before it’s fair to investigate what will happen to them, it’s best to first gauge what they look like now.

The first is the Oxford Valley Mall, in the lower portion of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, a suburban area northeast of Philadelphia.  The mall has sat at this location since 1973, at a time when Lower Bucks County was booming with new suburbanites (and, simultaneously, huge portions of north Philadephia city limits were hemorrhaging white middle class families).  It understandably seemed like a wise decision for the Kravco Company at the time: locate just off a major highway (US Route 1) in a rapidly growing area, where the land was still cheap enough to assemble a huge parcel for all the parking necessary in a corner of the metro with limited public transit access.  The model had worked in dozens of similar locations.  Why should it fail for Oxford Valley?

And the truth is, it didn’t.  It hasn’t—40 years later, the mall is up and running.  Oxford Valley Mall, on an early Saturday evening during the Christmas season, still looks like a lively place.  But closer scrutiny will reveal serious weaknesses that would not have been reflective of such confidently situated suburban real estate even a decade ago.  The community of Langhorne remains resolutely middle class, perhaps even upper-middle.  Though the area is likely far more ethnically diverse than it was in 1975, poverty rates remain quite low.  So what’s the problem with this particular mall?

At any rate, it’s a big one, at over 1.3 million square feet and two floors.From a superficial scan of the interior, it doesn’t look particularly outdated; it has obviously undergone an extensive interior renovation at least once since its 1973 construction.  While one would expect a mall food court to be busy at a conventional dinnertime, the fact that Oxford Valley has a number of people milling around the eateries indicates that people are at least lingering enough at the mall to justify staying around for a meal.  It’s fairly busy.Apparently, visiting the mall remains a popular pastime on Saturday evenings during the holidays.  But the first sign of weakness remains visible in the above photo: a vacant restaurant space between the Master Wok and Chicken Now.  And that’s not the only one.Two more at another section of the food court.  The co-existence of three vacant restaurants is far more indicative of a trend.  Is the rest of the mall riddled with vacancies?  Generally speaking, no: the two-story central spine of the mall still looks pretty solid, with shuttered storefronts few and far between.Big name brands at Oxford Valley MallAnd Oxford Valley Mall still commands some discriminating tenants:Big name brands at Oxford Valley MallBig name brands at Oxford Valley MallBig name brands at Oxford Valley MallSwarovski, Coach, Williams-Sonoma, and Banana Republic may not be Gucci or Prada, but they are solidly upper-middle performers, and they won’t just hop into any mall’s leasable space.  The fact that Oxford Valley is about to welcome a Sephora indicates that choosy brands are still absorbing mall space; the four pictured above aren’t necessarily the last of a dying breed.

But what about the other tenants?  It has its fair share of ubiquitous inline stores, like Claire’s, Kay Jewelers, Foot Locker, Sunglass Hut, the titanic Forever 21, and so forth.  But it also has places like this:According to its Tumblr-supported website, Never Too Spoiled apparently has one other branch, at the Hamilton Mall in New Jersey.  I’m hardly trying to fault an fledgling entrepreneur for making a go of things—which the proprietor of this store clearly is doing—but it’s a bit surprising to see a local tenant in a mall that clearly aspires to fairly high-end national and international brands.  And this little storefront is hardly alone:Mom and Pops at Oxford Valley MallI can’t find a website on Twinkle.  It appears to be the only one of its kind.  I commend a business like this for trying its luck in a large mall, but such entrepreneurs typically don’t have as deep of pockets as the national brands; the presence of Sparkle in this mall suggests that the leasing rates aren’t so high.  Here are a few more:Mom and Pops at Oxford Valley MallXO is a formal apparel store with two locations in the Philadelphia metro—nowhere else.Mom and Pops at Oxford Valley MallSuit Mart also lacks a website—at least one that is referring to the store with this name at Oxford Valley.  And the cluster of stores in the photos below (on both floors) is a real mystery:Mom and Pops at Oxford Valley Mall

None of them—East Meets West, Shinee, or George’s Cards and Collectibles-–even get mentioned in the directory for the mall.  Only the last of the three has a website (which I linked), but it, too, is a regional business with no more than a few locations.

Obviously Oxford Valley Mall has a lot of these mom-and-pop stores.  It is with no small amount of irony that I recognize that many of these locally-owned boutiques are the exact sort of tenants that our historic small-town main streets would kill for—as a sign that they are thriving—yet when they proliferate in a suburban, auto-oriented mall, they almost always indicate that the management company is lowering its leasing costs just to attract new tenants.  With too many mom-and-pops, a mall nearly always gets branded as declining.  Yet this mall in Bucks County can claim both the highly coveted national brands as well as regional small businesses.

Do the demographics of the area indicate anything about the direction the mall might be headed?  Not really.  Oxford Valley Mall sits just south of U.S. Route 1, at this point a limited access highway linking northeast Philadelphia to Trenton.  South of Route 1 sits the sprawling expanse of Levittown, among the first post-war middle class suburban developments in America and worth of a blog post of its own (or two, or three).  Levittown, now approaching 60 years old, is no longer a bastion of enforced racial homogeneity.  Though still mostly white, the titles of these modest, aging homes are rapidly shifting to Lower Bucks County’s immigrant newcomers, resulting in a far more ethnically diverse population patronizing the mall—but still one with low poverty rates.  On the northern side of Route 1 stretch many of Bucks County’s smaller boroughs and nascent exurbs, nearly all of which are mostly white and generally affluent—wealthy enough to keep Bucks County consistently among the top 100 highest-income counties in the country.

So what’s inducing this discernible weakness in the retail landscape at Oxford Valley?  I haven’t entirely been fair in my presentation of the evidence, because I’ve left out the biggest factor: one of the four department stores is vacant.This wing of the building apparently with the large “Court Shops” sign used to host Boscov’s, among the last of the surviving family-run department stores, with approximately 40 locations throughout the Mid-Atlantic states.  Boscov’s fell into dire financial straits in 2008, forcing it to file Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection and close a number of underperforming stores.  It has re-emerged successfully from bankruptcy, even to the point of re-opening some of its previously shuttered locations…but not at Oxford Valley Mall.  Thus, this wing of the mall has been without an anchor tenant for over four years.

And it shows.  It has the highest concentration of low-end or mom-and-pop tenants, none of which would lease space at this mall if it were thriving.Mom and Pops at Oxford Valley MallThe Jova School of Dance may very well be expensive, but it’s not the type of tenant mall management vigorously pursues, unless its desperate.  Why?  For-profit instructional schools keep unconventional hours and don’t really attract passive visitors, as evidenced by the fact that it’s already closed in the early evening on a Saturday.  Dollar Hut is a budget retailer, but not even a nationally known one (like Dollar Tree or Dollar General).  As far as I can tell, this is the only branch.  Elsewhere in this struggling wing of the mall, one encounters a local photography gallery:

Oxford Valley Mall at ChristmasAn indoor golf course:USA Blues, a regional budget apparel company:

And—coming soon—an H&R Block tax preparer, which is mostly likely a seasonal tenant that will close shortly after April 15.Oxford Valley Mall at ChristmasThe only two national chains in this wing are Five Below and Radio Shack, two common budget retailers.  These are the type of tenants one expects to see in seriously struggling or dying malls.  Not one that has a Williams Sonoma one thousand feet away.

Given that this former Boscov’s has been vacant for so long, it is probable that leasing rates are lower than elsewhere in the mall.  After all, without a big-ticket destination like a department store, this wing is essentially a long dead end.  But why has it been so hard for the property managers to find a replacement?  Sure, the economy has been bad, but we’re talking about Simon Property Group, the Indianapolis-based mall manager extraordinaire—the largest Real Estate Investment Trust in the country.  The folks running Oxford Valley are hardly amateurs, yet this wing of the mall has languished.  The “dead wing”, in turn, has clearly impeded the foot traffic in the rest of the mall, resulting in a commercial property that, in aggregate, struggles to attract a preponderance of big-name national tenants.I suspect that, in large extent, Simon Property Group is struggling with a fundamental design problem.  Over the last decade, mall management has turned “daylighting” of dying wings into a common practice.  That is, the owners or managers significantly modify a long-vacant department store, which has struggled largely because, after so many mergers and acquisitions, department store companies are simply fewer in number.  Usually the daylighting process involves transforming the shuttered store into a small, outdoor-oriented “lifestyle center” section, complete with elaborate landscape and fountains.  Simon successfully daylighted the old L.S. Ayres building at Greenwood Park Mall; as mentioned earlier, it continues its successful track record, with occupancy persistently above 95% and virtually nothing but big-name national brands.  But Oxford Valley is a two-story mall in its entirety.  Converting that already large department store (in which the size probably makes it less attractive in this sour economy) into an inevitably one-story lifestyle center would be analogous to a square peg in a round hole.  It would be hard to support a compatible design that links some one-story outdoor shops to a two-story mall, and presumably it isn’t worth the investment risk in an already uncertain climate for commercial real estate.  As a result, even though the interior is nice enough, Oxford Valley seems comparatively old-fashioned in the fact that it lacks any real visually stimulating storefronts when viewed from the outside parking lot.  It’s hardly a trailblazer among malls.

So this wing of Oxford Valley flounders, and the rest of the mall remains in flux, simultaneously catering to two ends of the economic spectrum.  Aside from its architectural hurdles, one could infer other socioeconomic explanations for this strange predicament.  Perhaps the problem is that Bucks County, Pennsylvania—particularly the northwestern half—is dotted with a number of fully successful historic main streets, which have successfully lured the most affluent demographic away from the malls.  Communities like New Town, Doylestown, and New Hope are shopping destinations in themselves, offering a mix of local boutiques and widely known national brands, all in what most would perceive to be a much more “authentic” and aesthetically stimulating setting.  Why should Talbott’s locate in a mall when it can occupy a 200-year-old Federal building in a vibrant, rich suburban town?  Enclosed malls don’t just have to compete with the phalanx of big boxes along the busy highways, now they have those other aforementioned retail typologies, like factory outlets and town centers (both historic and faux historic) as fierce competition.  It also can’t help that the Neshaminy Mall (also enclosed) competes with Oxford Valley from just six miles away in Bensalem, PA. 

One other, more cynical conclusion I could draw from the polarized retail at Oxford Valley is that it is reflective of an ever-widening gap between the rich and poor.  Here, in an otherwise low-poverty area, a Banana Republic, Sephora, Dollar Hut, and H&R Block sit under the same roof.  The middle-class stronghold of Levittown, sprawling across several square miles to the south, is not dying but certainly appears faded, as the nouveau bourgeois aspires to larger lots and fancier two-story homes in the exurbs.  The new generation of Levittown belongs increasingly to blue-collar families or recent immigrants who lack the purchasing power to sprawl into the tony verdure of Upper Bucks County.  I’m not bold enough to draw glib conclusions about escalating social stratification from simply walking around a conventional shopping mall (and I’d like to think I’m not that gormless either), but I’m just brave enough to put that postulate on the table.  Maybe the middle class really is shrinking in what was once a supremely middle-class stretch of metro Philadelphia.  Or maybe the demographics feeding into this mall are just so diverse and so atypical that national retailers don’t know what to think of it…so all too often they just don’t risk it.  Oxford Valley isn’t likely to get boarded up any time soon, but its future sure seems murky—regardless of what the optimistic folks at Sephora think.

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20 thoughts on “Shopping for the masses—the haves and have-nots.

  1. Lou

    great post. especially since i live in nearby South Jersey. Maybe Oxford Valley is losing luster because it is competing more with, just up the turnpike, King of Prussia, the mother of all malls.

    You should also check out Echelon Mall (reinvented Voorhess Town Center) and the updated Cherry Hill Mall, first east of the Mississippi.

  2. AmericanDirt

    Thanks for the feedback, Lou. It does seem like Oxford Valley has a lot of competition, with the already mentioned Neshaminy Mall just a few miles away, and then Quaker Bridge (a future blog post) across the river a short distance away in Windsor Township, NJ. Sure, there’s high density of suburbia in the area, but people seem more willing than ever to drive great distances to the preferred retail node, despite high gas prices. You’re probably right that many people seeking a high concentration of major brands which just hop over to King of Prussia Mall.

    I’ll do my best to check out some of those other recommended malls in the future. Stay tuned.

  3. Steve Stofka

    Also from PA here, and just found this article. I’d like to add that Oxford Valley is fairly typical of malls in the area–we lost about half of our Boscov’s in their bankruptcy, and most of those Boscov’s were, in turn, a rapid expansion into old Strawbridge’s when its parent company was folded into Macy’s.

    King of Prussia sucks traffic from most of these areas, but it’s hardly the only one to. Cherry Hill functions much the same way in South Jersey, where bridge tolls and congestion around Center City add an extra hurdle to getting to King of Prussia, and a lot of our wealth of Main Streets are ramping up their retail options.

    Interestingly enough, though, there is a conspicuous absence of Main Streets around the Oxford Valley Mall area, which (whether or not Simon likes it) means that the mall itself partially fills that void. But that explains Oxford Valley–but not Granite Run, in active competition with downtown Media, or Montgomery Mall, which has similar conditions and has half a dozen Main Streets an easy drive away.

  4. AmericanDirt

    Thanks for your comments, Steve. I wasn’t familiar with the Montgomery Mall, and I never got the chance to visit the Neshaminy Mall, but my guess is that they, too, have to feed on the remaining scraps that don’t get sucked into the King of Prussia vortex.

    Essentially, even as more malls are dying, even the ones that are surviving are only rarely flourishing. We have lowered the bar for what constitutes success, and my guess is Oxford Valley (or its counterpart Quaker Bridge in NJ) are “good enough” by today’s standards, though they’d hardly pass muster if we judged them through a 1985 lens. Then again, malls were everywhere in 1985, and people didn’t demonstrate the same level of willingness to travel huge distance for the really GOOD ones–a trend which today explains why Cherry Hill and King of Prussia may seem like the only two major mall winners in one of America’s largest metropolitan areas.

  5. Greg Salera

    Growing up in Bucks County I remember Oxford Valley as being a mix of Levittown and Trenton shoppers. I worked at the Florshiem shoe store in OVM in 1988 and we sold a lot of expensive shoes there to a very diverse group of people. They closed that store at the end of their lease but I believe it had more to do with Florsheims financial struggles than with the mall itself. One point I wanted to bring up which I didn’t see here in the blog or the following comments is this, Simon operates this mall and Simon has a lot of other malls. Simon is BIG. Because of its size Simon has some very valuable real estate in some very successful centers and many retail companies are often willing to package together leases into multiple centers to get the best leases in the sought after locations. This is why stores such as Coach are a staple in almost every Simon mall regrdless of whether its cusomers are there and no doubt why some of the better stores are now at OVM. Being said, in my opinion, Oxford Valley Mall has always had (and still has) middle to upper middle income customers but they are not the cultured and polished group that stores like Williams Sonoma seek and I don’t think stores like this will work there. Example being we sold many $100-$200 women’s shoes with ease but it was mostly to Trenton’s drag queens and label conscious hipsters. Levittowners bought boots and casual footwear. These groups of customers would probably better support brands such as Urban Outfitter, H&M, Armani Exchange, True Religion, Coach (which is already there), Michael Kors, and Love Culture and not Banana Republic, Swarovski, and Williams Sonoma. These stores are too conservative for that demographic. OVM could further benefit from being a middle to upper end entertainment center mixed with trendy restaurants such as PF Changs/Legal Seafoods. I think this is what would work there. Mom and Pop shops and run of the mill strip mall stores will not drive traffic from Cherry Hill to the east, KOP, Montgomery, and Willow Grove from the North, and Neshaminy fromthe south (with a very different demo coming mostly from NE Phila)

  6. Anonymous

    The other big change from the 80s is the big box retailers. Office Depot, Best Buy, Kohls and Borders were built very close to Oxford Valley Mall in the 90s. I think another factor affecting the mall is increased competition. These stores seem to have drawn quite a bit of traffic away from the mall, but are now also struggling.

    I suspect the mall did very well in the 70s, 80s and early 90s. I was a shopper there in the late 80s/early 90s.

    But it seemed dead the last time I was there over the summer.

  7. AmericanDirt

    Thanks for the comments Greg and Anonymous. Yes, I’d agree that the best days of OVM seem to be behind it, but some of it is less due to demographic changes in the area and more with an overall retreat from malls as an attractive/desirable real estate typology. People are willing to travel long long distances from the top tier malls (like King of Prussia and Cherry Hill), leaving Oxford Valley and Quaker Bridge in their wake. My suspicion is the routine visits to the mall are far less frequent than in the past, except for the lowest common denominator mall rats (i.e., teenyboppers, which explains the large number of stores that cater to them–both national chains and mom-and-pops).

  8. AmericanDirt

    Considering that I’ve been to Newtown, taken pictures, and typed a blog article at a coffeehouse, rest assured that the two-word spelling was a typo and nothing more. I have corrected it. Thank you for your graciousness in pointing that mistake out.

  9. Dr. Bigglesworth

    I just read your article from two years ago about the Oxford Valley Mall, and found it to be very insightful. I’ve recently become fascinated with the subject of “dead malls,” and given Simon’s continuing inability to replace the empty Boscov’s anchor (plus the loss this past year of FYE due to that company’s continued contraction, and Five Below, which relocated to the shopping center across the road), I was starting to wonder whether OVM had a future or not.

    One of the comments mentioned the competiton provided by nearby Neshaminy Mall; Neshaminy lacks some of the more upscale stores Oxford Valley has, yet seems to be in better shape — it’s smaller, only one floor (apart from the anchors) — has fewer vacant storefronts, and can boast a 24-screen AMC movie theater as one of its anchors (OVM has a 16-screen theater in an outparcel).

  10. AmericanDirt

    Thanks for your comment, Dr. Bigglesworth. I have not been to Neshaminy Mall, though it isn’t too far from me. It would be interesting for me to take a look and offer a prognosis. Sometimes malls with lower vacancy levels are still heavily underperforming, because so many of the occupying tenants are third-rate mom-and-pops. It may be that, even though Oxford Valley is more vacant, it ultimately commands a higher lease rate than Neshaminy, as manifested by the over all higher-income nature of its surviving stores.

  11. Wingnut

    This was some interesting reading and I see many of my own thoughts were echoed here. A few stores have come and gone since 2012 but the overall situation appears to be the same. Simon is dealing with a dead anchor and dead weight. I read an unverified claim from a former Boscov’s employee who said their former space needed millions in repair to bring it up to code and that’s why it was chosen for closure. To repair or replace it would be costly and it would be very difficult to recoup those expenses in today’s retail environment. Simon probably wishes that low-rent section didn’t exist at all. But overall, OVM appears to be a pretty solid mall and it’s in better shape than a lot of other area malls not named King of Prussia or Cherry Hill.

  12. AmericanDirt

    Thanks for the comments, Wingnut. At the time I wrote the article, I wasn’t quite aware what a key presence Boscov’s is in this Mid-Atantic region. But since it’s one of just a few surviving independently owned and operated department stores, it would be devastating to many malls in the area if it closed. It seems to enjoy some real customer loyalty, but I know it teetered on bankruptcy a few years ago. I’m pretty certain the closure of the Oxford Valley Mall Boscov’s took place at a time when the store was really struggling.

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  16. Leah

    Thank you for the article.

    I grew up in lower-middle Bucks, a richer area (Upper MF). The OVM mall used to incredible, honestly. Fountains, a huge ramp, 2 story Woolworths where the food court is, dark wood floors upstairs and dark tile downstairs. There was a Bambergers where Macy’s is, the now water logged, depressing former Boscovs was a gorgeous John Wanamakers, JC Penney, Sears, and every vacancy filled with tons of fun shops and restaurants like Olga’s Kitchen, York Steak House, and Louie’s Place in Bambergers. And plants, tons of plants. The place smelled intoxicating, soil, plants, and chlorine. You walked in and heard the drop, drip of those fountains.
    It was renovated in 1990, white flooring and the once dark beams were painted white. In 1995 was the big one; the Woolworths became the food court, unfortunately, and the ramp was pulled during to ADA, the plants and fountains removed. In 98 it was again renovated. That’s it.

    I think a myriad of issues brought down the mall. Levittown has always bordered on middle lower class. The entire area and its probably becoming more so. The wealthier folks live up in Newtown, Doylestown, Upper and Lower Makefield, Washington Crossing, New Hope, Buckingham etc. They go to Target, Ulta, out to KOP or Willow Grove. Nordstrom Rack and Marshalls and TJ Maxx.

    People now love online shopping, especially Amazon. The traffic down there is horrible, even worse than before.

    Teens today seem much more isolated than we were (I was born in 1974) and do everything it seems from their room. I’ve heard instances of getting a driver’s license as a teen are way down.

    1. AmericanDirt

      Thanks for the recount of this mall, Leah. By this point, you can no doubt tell that the article is fairly old and I’d imagine the conditions of Oxford Valley are worse today than back in late 2012–a condition that would have characterized about 80% of malls in the country…prior to COVID-19. Now, as restrictions ease somewhat, I’d say 98% of malls are in worse shape than 2012. With Sears reduced to several dozen locations, this former mainstay is missing across the country, and I’d imagine most malls look more like OVM: missing one (or two) department stores, lots of mom-and-pops where national brands used to be, and yawning vacancies. Three renovations in a single decade is surprising though, and that’s usually a sign that the malls owners/managers saw signs of trouble even way back then…and in the 90s, comparatively few malls were floundering.

      I’d agree largely that teens seem more isolated today, but bear in mind, they have computers and smart phones. The best that can be said about this pandemic is that it was easier for the hot-wired young generation to adjust to social distancing, since much of their engagement with friends was already virtual.

  17. Leah

    So, there’s this. The apparent future of Oxford Valley Mall, comes after years of rumors that involve everything; from tearing the entire thing down, to Sesame Place taking it down to expand, to the powers that be putting a Wegman’s in the flooded former Wanamaker anchor (previously Strawbridges, Hechts, Boscovs).

    I have to thank you for your response, made my day. So seldom do people who wrote the original blog return to comment! 🙂

    Yes 3 renovations in the 90s! 1990, 1995, 1998. The mall in a tricky spot. Its location is between a very upper middle class area, Newtown township, Yardley, Upper Makefield, and a working class area of Bristol, Levittown, Middletown, Fairless Hills. They turned the old Levittown Shoporama into a massive Walmart ten years ago or more. There’s a Target across from OVM, a Nordstrom Rack & TJ Maxx, a Burlington’s, a Ross.

    Its utterly fascinating to see the direction of American consumerism.

    1. AmericanDirt

      Thanks for sharing this new article, Leah. It’ll be interesting to see if this approach becomes the new paradigm for reviving malls–adding residential density in their oversized parking lots–and then, a few years later, seeing if it actually works. Clearly there’s no point in adding retail alone. It’s interesting to me that Oxford Valley is still owned by Simon Property Group, which is probably a good sign, since it has far more of the expertise to figure out a solution than most of the other big developers (and it’s still the biggest of them all). But if it misjudges, it too could fail, and these are very VERY difficult times for mall ownership and management. Even the really competent ones (like Simon).

      I’m surprised Oxford Valley still has a JC Penney and who knows how much longer. I have no doubt it’s in worse shape today than it was when I took these photos, but, the fact that Simon still owns it means it hasn’t divested of it (which it typically does to its most failing malls), and this level of investment suggests that it still sees promise in the real estate. I think Oxford Valley will be one semi-struggling mall that deserves a follow-up article in about two years…if I get back out there.


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